|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
As of December 31, 2022, our Portfolio included approximately $4.3 billion of equity method investments, receivables, real estate and investments on our balance sheet. The equity method investments represent our non-controlling equity investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects and land. The receivables and investments are typically collateralized by contractually committed debt obligations of government entities or private high credit quality obligors and are often supported by additional forms of credit enhancement, including security interests and supplier guaranties. The real estate is typically land and related lease intangibles for long-term leases to wind and solar projects.
In developing and evaluating performance against our credit criteria, we consider a number of qualitative and quantitative criteria which may include a project’s operating results, loan-to-value ratio, any cash reserves, the ability of expected cash from operations to cover the cash flow requirements currently and into the future, key terms of the transaction, the ability of the borrower to refinance the transaction, the financial and operating capability of the borrower, its sponsors or the obligor as well as any guarantors and the project’s collateral value. In addition, we consider the overall economic environment, the climate solutions sector, the effect of local, industry and broader economic factors, the impact of any variation in weather and the historical and anticipated trends in interest rates, defaults and loss severities for similar transactions.
The following is an analysis of the Performance Ratings of our Portfolio as of December 31, 2022, which is assessed quarterly:
(1)This category includes our assets where based on our credit criteria and performance to date we believe that our risk of not receiving our invested capital remains low.
(2)This category includes our assets where based on our credit criteria and performance to date we believe there is a moderate level of risk to not receiving some or all of our invested capital.
(3)This category includes our assets where based on our credit criteria and performance to date, we believe there is substantial doubt regarding our ability to recover some or all of our invested capital. Loans in this category are placed on non-accrual status. In the second quarter of 2022, we moved $11 million of loans we had made in a new market venture where the performance has not met expectations to this category from Category 2.
Previously included in this category were two commercial receivables with a combined total carrying value of approximately $8 million which were assignments of land lease payments from two wind projects that we had originated in 2014. In 2017, the operator of the projects terminated the lease, at which time we filed a legal claim and placed these assets on non-accrual status. In 2019, we received a court decision indicating that the owners of the projects were within their rights under the contract terms to terminate the lease which impacts the land lease assignments to us, at which time we reserved the receivables for their full carrying amount. In the second quarter of 2022, we received a court decision indicating that our appeal was not successful, and accordingly we wrote off the full amount of the receivable.
(4)Receivable vintage refers to the period in which the relevant loan agreement is signed, and a given vintage may contain loan advances made in periods subsequent to the period in which the loan agreement was signed.
(5)Total reconciles to the total of the government receivables and commercial receivables lines of the consolidated balance sheets
(6)Some of the individual projects included in portfolios that make up our equity method investments have government off-takers. As they are part of large portfolios, they are not classified separately.
As of December 31, 2022 our allowance for loan losses was $41 million based on our expectation for credit losses over the lives of the receivables in our Portfolio. During 2022, we recorded a provision for loss on receivables of $13 million primarily due to new loans and loan commitments.
Below is a summary of the carrying value, expected loan funding commitments, and allowance by type of receivable or “Portfolio Segment,” as defined by Topic 326, as of December 31, 2022 and 2021:
(1)As of December 31, 2022, this category of assets include $1,212 million of mezzanine loans made on a non-recourse basis to special purpose subsidiaries of residential solar companies which are secured by residential solar assets where we rely on certain limited indemnities, warranties, and other obligations of the residential solar companies or their other subsidiaries. This total also includes $47 million of lease agreements where we hold legal title to the underlying real estate which are treated under GAAP as receivables since they were deemed to be failed sale/leaseback transactions as described in Note 2.
Risk characteristics of our commercial receivables include a project’s operating risks, which include the impact of the overall economic environment, the climate solutions sector, the effect of local, industry, and broader economic factors, the impact of any variation in weather and trends in interest rates. We use assumptions related to these risks to estimate an allowance using a discounted cash flow analysis or the PD/LGD method as discussed in Note 2. All of our commercial receivables are included in Performance Rating 1 in the Portfolio Performance table above, except for the $11 million of receivables we have placed on non-accrual status which are included in Performance Rating 3. For those assets in Performance Rating 1, the credit worthiness of the obligor combined with the various structural protections of our assets cause us to believe we have a low risk we will not receive our invested capital, however we recorded a $36 million allowance on these $1.9 billion in assets as a result of lower probability assumptions utilized in our allowance methodology.
(2)As of December 31, 2022, our government receivables include $13 million of U.S. federal government transactions and $90 million of transactions where the ultimate obligors are state or local governments.
Risk characteristics of our government receivables include the energy savings or the power output of the projects and the ability of the government obligor to generate revenue for debt service, via taxation or other means. Transactions may have guarantees of energy savings or other performance support from third-party service providers, which typically are entities, directly or whose ultimate parent entity is, rated investment grade by an independent rating agency. All of our government receivables are included in Performance Rating 1 in the Portfolio Performance table above. Our allowance for government receivables is primarily calculated by using PD/LGD methods as discussed in Note 2. Our expectation of credit losses for these receivables is immaterial given the high credit-quality of the obligors.
The following table reconciles our beginning and ending allowance for loss on receivables by Portfolio Segment for the year ended December 31, 2022:
Other than the $11 million of receivables discussed above with a Performance Rating of 3, we have no receivables which are on non-accrual status.
The following table provides a summary of our anticipated maturity dates of our receivables and the weighted average yield for each range of maturities as of December 31, 2022:
The following table provides a summary of our anticipated maturity dates of our investments and the weighted average yield for each range of maturities as of December 31, 2022:
We had no investments that were impaired or on non-accrual status as of December 31, 2022 or 2021, and no allowances associated with our investments.
Our real estate is leased to renewable energy projects, typically under long-term triple net leases with expiration dates that range between the years 2033 and 2057 under the initial terms and 2047 and 2080 if all renewals are exercised. The components of our real estate portfolio as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, were as follows:
As of December 31, 2022, the future amortization expense of the intangible assets and the future minimum rental income payments under our land lease agreements are as follows:
Equity Method Investments
We have made non-controlling equity investments in a number of climate solutions projects as well as in a joint venture that owns land with long-term triple net lease agreements to several solar projects that we account for as equity method investments. As of December 31, 2022, we held the following equity method investments:
(1)Represents the total of three equity investments in a portfolio of a renewable energy projects discussed below.
Jupiter Equity Holdings, LLC
We have a preferred equity interest in Jupiter Equity Holdings, LLC (“Jupiter”) that owns nine operating onshore wind projects and four operating utility-scale solar projects with an aggregate capacity of approximately 2.3 gigawatts. We have made capital contributions to Jupiter of approximately $536 million related to these projects, reflecting final funding true-ups after all projects reached substantial completion. The projects feature cash flows from fixed-price power purchase agreements and financial hedges with a weighted average contract life of 13 years, contracted with highly creditworthy off-takers and counterparties.
Jupiter is governed by an amended and restated limited liability company agreement, dated July 1, 2020, by and among Jupiter, one of our subsidiaries and a subsidiary of the project sponsor, and contains customary terms and conditions. We own 100% of the Class A Units in Jupiter corresponding to 49% of the distributions from Jupiter subject to the preferences discussed below. Most major decisions that may impact Jupiter, its subsidiaries or its assets, require the majority vote of a four person committee in which we and the project sponsor each have two representatives. Through Jupiter, we will be entitled to preferred distributions until certain return targets are achieved. Once these return targets are achieved, distributions will be allocated approximately 33% to us and approximately 67% to the sponsor. We and the sponsor each have a right of first offer if the other party desires to transfer any of its equity ownership to a third party on or after July 1, 2023. We use the equity method of accounting to account for our preferred equity interest in Jupiter, and have elected to recognize earnings from this investment one quarter in arrears to allow for the receipt of financial information.
Lighthouse Renewables Portfolio
In December 2020, we entered into certain agreements relating to the acquisition, ownership and management of approximately $663 million in preferred cash equity investments in three partnerships that expect to own cash equity interests in an approximately 1.6 gigawatt portfolio of onshore wind, utility-scale solar and solar-plus-storage projects (the “Renewables Portfolio”) developed and managed by the project sponsor. In 2021, we modified this structure to include an additional project in the renewables portfolio and to be held through the four partnerships (“Lighthouse Partnerships”), bringing our total expected investment to $870 million. We have made initial investments in the preferred cash equity interests of the Lighthouse Partnerships of approximately $433 million through December 31, 2022, and additional investments are expected to be made as the projects become commercially operational. The Renewables Portfolio currently has contracted cash flows with a combined weighted average contract life of greater than 15 years with a diversified group of predominately investment grade corporate, utility, university, and municipal offtakers.
Each of the Lighthouse Partnerships are or will be governed by a limited liability company agreement between us and the sponsor serving as managing member and contain customary terms and conditions. Most major decisions that may impact each of the Lighthouse Partnerships, its subsidiaries or its assets, require a unanimous vote of the representatives present at a meeting of a review committee in which a quorum is present. The review committee is a four person committee, which includes two Company representatives and two sponsor representatives. Through each Lighthouse Partnership, commencing on a certain date following the effective date of the applicable limited liability company agreement, we will be entitled to preferred distributions until certain return targets of the Renewables Portfolio are achieved. Subject to customary exceptions, no member of a Lighthouse Partnership can transfer any of its equity ownership in any Lighthouse Partnership to a third party without approval of the review committee of that Lighthouse Partnership. We use the equity method of accounting to account for our preferred equity interest in each Lighthouse Partnership, and have elected to recognize earnings from this investment one quarter in arrears to allow for the receipt of financial information.
Related party transactions
Of our commercial receivables, approximately $713 million are loans made to entities in which we also have non-controlling equity investments of approximately $338 million. These equity method investments are LLCs taxed as partnerships that we have entered into with various renewable energy project sponsors, such as SunPower Corporation. We negotiate the commercial terms of these loans with the other partner, and the assets against which the project sponsors are borrowing are contributed into the LLCs upon the execution of the loans. Our equity investments allow us to participate in the residual economics of those contributed assets alongside the other partner, and our rights under the project operating agreements do not allow us to make any significant unilateral decisions regarding the terms of the arrangement. Because the loans made to these entities are typically subordinate to senior debt and tax equity investors in the projects, these loans, which have maturities of over ten years, may accrue PIK interest in the early years of the project until sufficient cash flow is available for our interest payments. Any change in PIK interest is included in Change in accrued interest on receivables and investments in the operating section of our statement of cash flows. On a quarterly basis, we assess these loans for any impairment inclusive of any PIK interest accrued under CECL as discussed above under Receivables.
The following table provides additional detail on these related party transactions:
In addition to the above, in the second quarter of 2022, as part of a purchase and sale agreement with an equity investee, we exchanged three performing loans for equity interests in the same project companies. The GAAP carrying value of the loans was $55 million, which were exchanged in a non-cash transaction for equity method investments with no gain or loss recognized at the time of exchange as calculated using discounted cash flows at a market interest rate.